Middle East

Middle Eastern landraces. Typical ‘drug’ landraces from the Middle East conform quite closely to the Indica type. They’re often early maturing dwarf or semi-dwarf strains. Their architecture tends toward being single-stem, though heavily branched variants are common. Leaflet width ranges from narrow to broad, though more usually to the medium-to-narrow end of the spectrum. The Middle East comprises a distinct landrace zone, from Iran westward to the Mediterranean, including Turkey and Egypt. It’s overlooked in popular and academic understanding of Cannabis botany. In its widest sense, it encompasses the traditional Cannabis strains of the Balkans and North Africa, including Greece and Morocco. Their shared traits could be explained by the historic diffusion of cannabis culture out of Central Asia in the early thirteenth century. Following the Mongol conquests, hashish rapidly went from near-total obscurity across the Middle East to mass popularity as far westward as Islamic Spain. Additionally, by the nineteenth century, Levantine smuggling networks were supplying seed and techniques to hashish farmers around the Eastern Mediterranean.

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